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Derwand et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106214 (preprint 7/3) (Peer Reviewed)

COVID-19 Outpatients – Early Risk-Stratified Treatment with Zinc Plus Low Dose Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin : A Retrospective Case Series Study

 79% lower mortality and 82% lower hospitalization with early HCQ+AZ+Z. No cardiac side effects. Retrospective 518 patients (141 treated, 377 control).


Dubernet et al., J. Global Antimicrobial Resistance, doi:10.1016/j.jgar.2020.08.001 (Peer Reviewed)

A comprehensive strategy for the early treatment of COVID-19 with azithromycin/hydroxychloroquine and/or corticosteroids : results of a retrospective observational study in the French overseas department of Reunion Island

risk of ICU admission, 87.6% lower, RR 0.12, p = 0.008, treatment 1 of 17 (5.9%), control 9 of 19 (47.4%).


Guérin et al., Asian J. Medicine and Health, July 15, 2020, doi:10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i730224 (preprint 5/31) (Peer Reviewed)

Azithromycin and Hydroxychloroquine Accelerate Recovery of Outpatients with Mild/Moderate COVID-19

 Mean clinical recovery time reduced from 26 days (SOC) to 9 days, p<0.0001 (HCQ+AZ) or 13 days, p<0.0001 (AZ). No cardiac toxicity. Small retrospective study of 88 patients with case control analysis with matched patients.

risk of death, 61.4% lower, RR 0.39, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 20 (0.0%), control 1 of 34 (2.9%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).

recovery time, 65.0% lower, relative time 0.35, p < 0.001, treatment 20, control 34.


Lagier et al., Preprint (Preprint)

Outcomes of 2,111 COVID-19 hospitalised patients treated with 2 hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and other regimens in Marseille, France : a 3 monocentric retrospective analysis

Retrospective 2,011 hospitalized patients in France, median age 67, showing lower mortality with HCQ+AZ, and further benefit with the addition of zinc.

risk of death, 32.0% lower, RR 0.68, p = 0.004, treatment 93 of 1270 (7.3%), control 146 of 841 (17.4%), adjusted per study, weighted multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.


Lagier et al., Travel Med. Infect. Dis. 101791, Jun 25, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101791 (Peer Reviewed)

Outcomes of 3,737 COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and other regimens in Marseille, France : A retrospective analysis

risk of death, 59.0% lower, RR 0.41, p = 0.05, treatment 35 of 3119 (1.1%), control 58 of 618 (9.4%), adjusted per study.


Lauriola et al., Clinical and Translational Science, doi:10.1111/cts.12860 (Peer Reviewed)

Effect of combination therapy of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin on mortality in COVID‐19 patients

risk of death, 73.5% lower, RR 0.27, p < 0.001, treatment 102 of 297 (34.3%), control 35 of 63 (55.6%), adjusted per study.


Million et al., Preprint (Preprint)
Early Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in 10,429 COVID-19 Outpatients : A Monocentric Retrospective Cohort Study

Retrospective 10,429 outpatients in France, 8,315 treated with HCQ+AZ a median of 4 days from symptom onset, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.

risk of death, 83.0% lower, RR 0.17, p < 0.001, treatment 5 of 8315 (0.1%), control 11 of 2114 (0.5%), adjusted per study.


Arshad et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., July 1 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.099 (Peer Reviewed)

Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, and Combination in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19

HCQ decreases mortality from 26.4% to 13.5% (HCQ) or 20.1% (HCQ+AZ). Propensity matched HCQ HR 0.487, p=0.009. Michigan 2,541 patients retrospective. Before propensity matching the HCQ group average age is 5 years younger and the percentage of male patients is 4% higher which is likely to favor the treatment and the control respectively in the before-propensity matching results.

risk of death, 51.3% lower, RR 0.49, p = 0.009, treatment 162 of 1202 (13.5%), control 108 of 409 (26.4%).


Ashinyo et al., Pan African Medical Journal, 37:1, doi:10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.37.1.25718 (Peer Reviewed)

Clinical characteristics, treatment regimen and duration of hospitalization among COVID-19 patients in Ghana : a retrospective cohort study

Retrospective 307 hospital patients in Ghana showing 33% reduction in hospitalization time with HCQ, 29% reduction with HCQ+AZ, and 37% reduction with CQ+AZ


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